Link Log 2020-09-19

Built to Last

Indeed, present-day tech could use more of the sort of resilience and accessibility that COBOL brought to computing – especially for systems that have broad impacts, will be widely used, and will be long-term infrastructure that needs to be maintained by many hands in the future. In this sense, COBOL and its scapegoating show us an important aspect of high tech that few in Silicon Valley, or in government, seem to understand. Older systems have value, and constantly building new technological systems for short-term profit at the expense of existing infrastructure is not progress. In fact, it is among the most regressive paths a society can take.

Vocational Awe

Because of our refusal to deal with systemic, societal issues, librarians – much like public school teachers – grapple with a condensation of duties onto their profession. Librarians become technology experts, crowd control specialists, and emergency responders, trained in how to deal with someone in the middle of a mental health crisis. Now they’re custodians of our democracy as well….in addition to being, you know, information scientists and attempting to maintain collections of knowledge. They are working at least three jobs. Five jobs? More? But they’re often only compensated (and often poorly) for that last one.

My PBP Bike: Contact Points

Comfort on a bike really depends on two things. The first is absorbing vibrations through supple, wide tires and a little suspension in the fork. The second is to make the contact points, where your body touches the bike, as anatomical as possible.

A Time Piece

A decent watch is a useful piece of personal equipment. While not a critical item many of use appreciate a rugged, practical timepiece. I thought I would discuss my experience with watches, as it reflects the activities I was involved in at the time.

How Conspiracy Theories Are Shaping the 2020 Election—and Shaking the Foundation of American Democracy

Democracy relies on an informed and engaged public responding in rational ways to the real-life facts and challenges before us. But a growing number of Americans are untethered from that. “They’re not on the same epistemological grounding, they’re not living in the same worlds,” says Whitney Phillips, a professor at Syracuse who studies online disinformation. “You cannot have a functioning democracy when people are not at the very least occupying the same solar system.”

Attack Surface Kickstarter

Fuck Audible.

de Young 2020

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YubiKey Cleaning

I’ve carried the same YubiKey NEO on my keychain for five years. On average it gets used dozens of times per day, via USB, as an OpenPGP card. The YubiKey looks a little worse for wear, but it almost always works flawlessly.

Occasionally, it requires a few insertions to be read. When this happens I clean the contacts by rubbing them gently with a Pentel Clic Eraser, wiping off the dust, spraying them with isopropyl alcohol, and then wiping them dry. Afterwards, the YubiKey is registered immediately on the first insert. I perform this procedure about once or twice per year.

YubiKey Cleaning

Using the eraser is potentially dangerous, but I’ve had good luck with it over the years. The white vinyl in the Pentel Clic feels very smooth compared to the abrasiveness of the rubber found on the tops of most pencils.

A few years ago, when large wildfires were becoming the norm, I remember hearing that you shouldn't vacuum when the air quality was poor.

The claim was that pollutants would go through the vacuum and out the exhaust, distributing them back into the air, where you then breathe them in. It was better to just let them sit. While this argument made sense, it struck me as primarily being a critique of a poorly designed tool: I vacuum to remove unwanted matter from my living space, not to redistribute it within the space. So I did the obvious thing and bought a Miele vacuum with HEPA exhaust filter from the Germans. For the past four years my vacuum has been effectively the same as my air filter. I can use it regardless of environmental conditions, even during the 36-hour night.

San Francisco Sunrise

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Link Log 2020-08-25

A clean start for the web

Inside the high-stakes world of clandestine crude shipping

Hygiene Theater Is a Huge Waste of Time

COVID-19 has reawakened America’s spirit of misdirected anxiety, inspiring businesses and families to obsess over risk-reduction rituals that make us feel safer but don’t actually do much to reduce risk-even as more dangerous activities are still allowed. This is hygiene theater.

Elderblog Sutra: 11

Applied to a blog, angkorwatification is a sort of textual equivalent of rewilding. You have a base layer of traditional blog posts that is essentially complete in the sense of having created, over time, an idea space with a clear identity, and a more or less deliberately conceived architecture to it. And you have a secondary organic growth layer that is patiently but relentlessly rewilding the first, inorganic one. That second layer also emerges from the mind of the blogger of course, but does so via surrender to brain entropy rather than via writerly intentions disciplining the flow of words. I’ve seen some other old sites undergo angkorwatification. Some seem to happily surrender to it like I am doing, others seem to fight it, like I won’t.

Bikes of the Bunch: Rob English’s English road bike

I am very excited about this revolutionary bicycle, and look forward to testing it. Look at all the gains – the same braking power, modulation and control, but with less weight, easier-to-remove wheels, no hydraulics, more compliant fork and no rotor-rubbing noises! Yes, there are a couple of downsides – it’s not ideal in the wet, and it can’t use the best shaped aerodynamic (carbon) rims. Still, could this oversized rotor concept be the next big thing in cycling?

Buena Vista Fire Sunset

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Tracking My Phone Bill with Ledger

Back in 2013 I bought my first smartphone and signed up for a T-Mobile prepaid plan, referred to at the time as the “Walmart Plan”. The plan cost $30 per month, was intended for new customers only, and was supposed to only be available to those who purchased the SIM card at a Walmart. It offered a small amount of voice minutes and a large amount of data, which struck me as what one would want with one of these newfangled computer-phones. I bought a SIM card, figured out how to get T-Mobile to sign me up on the plan despite not stepping foot into a Walmart, and haven’t looked back since.

One of the things that appeals to me about the setup is the level of separation it gives me from the service provider. I purchased the phone from the manufacturer and the SIM card I bought with cash. I fund the plan by purchasing refill cards from third-party vendors. I have never provided T-Mobile with any financial information. They have no ability to take any money from me, except what I give them when trading in the refill cards. Obviously, the primary business of any mobile communications provider is location tracking, so I can’t refer to my relationship with them as “privacy preserving”, but I like to think it does allow me to retain some level of agency that is lost in a more traditional relationship.

If there is a downside to this setup, it is that it can be difficult to understand what I actually pay per month. The plan costs $30. There is some limit to the number of SMS messages, but I have no idea what it is. Data is “unlimited”, which means throttled over 4GB, but I don’t think I’ve ever approached even half that limit. Minutes are limited, and if I go over the allotment I’m charged a higher rate, but the service continues as long as the balance of the account remains positive.

I always want to keep more than $30 in the account, in case I do go over the allotted minutes. So I buy $50 refill cards. They have $50 of value, and are supposed to cost me $50. But the vendor I tend to by them from charges a $1 service fee, offers a points program that sometimes results in a discount being applied, and frequently has sales that offer a couple dollars off. So I end up paying something like $48-51. If I do exceed the limits of the plan, I may end up buying a $50 card one month and the next. More often, I buy a $50 card one month and have enough left over in the account that I do not need to refill it the following month. My plan renews on the 5th of the month, so some months I may end up spending $100 by buying one refill card on the first day of the month and another on the last in anticipation of the following month’s renewal.

All of that is to say that it is difficult to have an intuitive feel for what my average monthly phone expense is, but it’s important that I can get that number so that I can determine if the plan is still working or if I should look for a better offer. Fortunately, this is a thing that Ledger makes extremely simple.

Whenever I purchase a refill card, I log the transaction in the Expenses:Utilities:Phone account. With that done, I can ask Ledger to report on all transactions in that account, grouped by month, with a running average in the final column.

$ ledger register utilities:phone --monthly --average --begin 2019-08
2019-09-01 - 2019-09-30     Expenses:Utilities:Phone    $48.50      $48.50
2019-10-01 - 2019-10-31     <None>                      0           $24.25
2019-11-01 - 2019-11-30     Expenses:Utilities:Phone    $46.50      $31.67
2019-12-01 - 2019-12-31     <None>                      0           $23.75
2020-01-01 - 2020-01-31     Expenses:Utilities:Phone    $51.00      $29.20
2020-02-01 - 2020-02-29     <None>                      0           $24.33
2020-03-01 - 2020-03-31     Expenses:Utilities:Phone    $48.50      $27.79
2020-04-01 - 2020-04-30     <None>                      0           $24.31
2020-05-01 - 2020-05-31     Expenses:Utilities:Phone    $48.50      $27.00
2020-06-01 - 2020-06-30     Expenses:Utilities:Phone    $46.50      $28.95
2020-07-01 - 2020-07-31     <None>                      0           $26.32
2020-08-01 - 2020-08-31     Expenses:Utilities:Phone    $51.00      $28.38

Over the past 12 months, I have spent an average of $28.38 per month on phone service. I’m ok with that.

Adding Metadata to Ledger

As mentioned previously, two of the primary reasons I use Ledger are the intimate awareness it provides of how money is moving, and its timely representation of current balances. The third primary reason I use the tool is for the activity history it provides.

Recording almost every transaction I make (excepting only some small petty cash) allows me to look at years past and build an accurate picture of what I was doing. Most activities leave some sort of financial record, even if the transaction is only tangential to the activity itself. This is the sort of information that I would be extremely uncomfortable providing to a third-party, but is quite useful to have myself.

Storing receipts provides an additional layer of detail to the history created in the Ledger journal. As an intermediate between the full receipt and the basic journal entry, I find it is extremely valuable to use comments and tags within the journal. Almost every transaction in my Ledger journal that is not for food has a comment describing what goods or service was purchased.

In Ledger, comments begin with a semicolon. I store them below the first line of the transaction. When placed here, Ledger refers to these comments as notes. When purchasing goods, I add one comment – or note – for each unique item on the transaction. For instance, I might buy socks:

2018-07-02=2018-07-01 * Socks Addict
    ; Darn Tough Light Cushion No Show Tab, Black/Grey, Large, 2x
    Expenses:Clothing:Footwear                $33.40

The comment tells me exactly what was purchased. More importantly, it tells me the model name, the color, and the size of the item. If I want to purchase another pair of identical socks, I can do so easily. This seems like a minor thing, but when it is applied to everything I buy, it is hard to overstate how greatly this ability has improved my quality of life over the past decade.

In Ledger, comments are searchable. Say I want to list every transaction where I purchased a pair of Darn Tough socks. I buy them from different retailers, so I can’t filter by the payee. All the transactions are in the Expenses:Clothing:Footwear category, but that category includes socks from other manufacturers and well as other things that go on my feet, so I can’t filter by that. But I can query all transactions with a note which includes the string “darn tough”.

$ ledger register note darn tough

A tag is a special kind of comment. Tags are useful if you have the foresight to realize that a particular transaction should be grouped with other transactions, but that transactions within the group will likely have different payees or accounts. Tags start and end with a :. Multiple tags can be chained together.

I use tags for vacations. Expenses related to any vacation are tagged with two tags: a generic :vacation: tag, and a tag specific to the vacation. This allows me to easily see what I spend on vacations in general, or any one vacation specifically. For example, in 2018 I took a 24-hour trip to Las Vegas to see Nine Inch Nails. That trip included numerous transactions in unrelated accounts: concert tickets, airline tickets, accommodations, ground transport, food, etc. All transactions were tagged with :vacation: and :nin-vegas-2018:. As an example, here is the transaction for purchasing the concert tickets:

2018-03-30=2018-03-28 * AXS
    ; Nine Inch Nails at The Joint, Las Vegas
    ; :nin-vegas-2018:vacation:
    Expenses:Entertainment:Performance        $95.50

Ledger makes it easy to see all the expenses associated with that trip, both in total and broken out into different expense accounts.

$ ledger balance expense and %nin-vegas-2018

I also use tags to indicate transactions that occur via the same merchant system but have different payees. Specifically, things I buy on Etsy are tagged :esty: and things I buy on eBay are tagged :ebay:. Without these tags I would have no way to list all the Etsy purchases I have made, since I send the money to individual sellers and not Etsy itself.

I also use tags to indicate transactions related to keeping my apartment. Rent goes to the Expenses:Rent account. Electricity charges go to Expenses:Utilities:Electric. Gas charges go to Expenses:Utilities:Gas. My cell phone payment goes to Expenses:Utilities:Phone. The first three charges I consider apartment expenses. My cell phone is not. By tagging the first three with :apt: I can easily see the total monthly cost of keeping my apartment, without a bunch of complicated querying to exclude things like the cell phone bill.

My final use for tags is indicating transactions that I think should be deducted from my taxes. Some people do this with accounts, but I find that with the account structure that makes sense to me I often end up with a mix of deductible and non-deductible transactions within a single account. Tagging deductible transactions with :deduct: makes it easy to dump a list of all transactions that should be considered when completing yearly taxes.

Reconciling Ledger

For me, one of the primary appeals of using Ledger – or really any accounting system – is that it let’s me know how much money I have (or don’t have) right now. Other people’s records lag behind reality.

If I submit an order for a $50 widget on a website today, I consider that $50 gone, even though the vendor likely didn’t collect the money immediately. They probably placed a hold on the funds, but will not actually capture the money until they ship the order, which may take a couple days. When they do capture the funds, it may still be another day or two until that action posts to my online bank statement. Were I dependent on the bank, I could go a week thinking that I have $50 more than I actually have.

It is important to me that I log transactions without waiting for them to appear elsewhere, but at some point I do want to reconcile my records against what my bank believes. I accomplish this with auxiliary dates.

Were I to submit that order for a $50 widget today, I would create the entry using today’s date. Even if it takes me a few days to actually record the entry, I will still use the date the order was submitted.

2020-08-06 Acme, Inc
    Expenses:Misc                             $50.00

Periodically, I will manually reconcile every transaction in my journal against my bank’s online statements. Usually this happens every other week or so. Many people will simply dump a CSV from their bank and use a script to parse and import the results into their journal. I prefer to do it manually. This rarely takes more than 30 minutes, and for me it is one of the other primary appeals of using Ledger: it forces me to be intimately aware of how money is flowing in my life, and makes it extremely easy to spot problems or errors. It is difficult to accomplish that reliably without manually touching every transaction.

So a week or two later I’ll login to the bank and make sure there is a $50 payment to Acme, Inc. If the date listed by the bank for that transaction is different from what I recorded – which for online transactions is almost always the case – I’ll prepend that date to my entry.

2020-08-10=2020-08-06 Acme, Inc
    Expenses:Misc                             $50.00

When there are two dates, Ledger considers the date to the left of the = to be the primary date. The other date is the auxiliary date. Previously, when only one date was listed, it was the equivalent to 2020-08-06=2020-08-06. By using the bank’s date as the primary date, I know that the default output from a report like ledger register assets:bank:checking will match the bank’s statements. If I want to report on what I consider to be the real dates of the transactions, I can pass the --aux-date flag.

The journal files themselves I edit manually in vim, with a little help from vim-ledger. I have <leader>t mapped to set today’s date as the primary date of the current transaction. Because I usually only reconcile two or three times a month, today’s date is often not the date I actually want, but this shortcut allows me to immediately insert a new date in the correct format. I can then quickly change the day number to whatever it should actually be.

I consider the transaction to be cleared once the bank statement and the Ledger journal file agree on the date, payee, and dollar amount. In Ledger, transactions are marked as cleared by inserting an * between the date and the payee. In vim I map this to <leader>c. A complete transaction thus looks like this:

2020-08-10=2020-08-06 * Acme, Inc
    Expenses:Misc                             $50.00

Ledger defaults to including all transactions in its reporting and calculations. By passing the --cleared flag it will only include transactions that have been marked as cleared. So after I think I’m done reconciling all transactions against my bank statement, I will run ledger balance assets:bank:checking --cleared and verify that the resulting balance matches what the bank shows. If I want to know how much money I actually have in that account, I will run ledger balance assets:bank:checking. The output of this will likely include transactions that the bank hasn’t caught on to yet.

If for some reason Ledger’s output of the cleared balance does not agree with the bank, my first step will be to make sure that all transactions are sorted by their primary date. If I already have the file open in vim, I have a shortcut for that. Otherwise I keep a one-liner script called ledger-sort that takes the name of a ledger file as input, sorts it, and shows me the diff.


ledger -f $1 print --sort d > $1.sort && mv $1{.sort,} && git diff

Checking the diff of the sorted output before continuing is important. Sometimes I’ll make a silly mistake like typing the wrong year when entering the transaction. This sort of mistake is obvious when looking at the diff.

Once the file is sorted, I’ll run ledger register assets:bank:checking --cleared. The final column in this output is a running total of the account balance. The only difference between the output and my bank statement should be the ordering of transactions within a day, which I do not care about.

I’ll know that I last cleared my journal around a certain date, and that the account balance was accurate as of that date.1 If I was doing this on 2020-08-06, I might say to myself “I know I cleared Ledger sometime in mid-July, so let’s look at my account balance at end of day on 2020-07-15”. If the bank and Ledger both agree on the balance at the end of day on that date (regardless of the ordering of the multiple transactions that may have occurred on the day), I’ll know that the error is somewhere between 2020-07-16 and 2020-08-06. Next I’ll jump to another random day in that period – maybe 2020-07-22 – and perform the same exercise. This is repeated until I find the first day where the two systems disagree on the ending balance. Then I look at every transaction on that day and find the error. Usually it will be a simple data entry error, such as me typing $12.10 instead of $12.01. Having my receipts stored allows me to verify that I did indeed agree to pay $12.10 and that the error is mine rather than the payee’s. This whole process of finding errors rarely requires more than two minutes, and occurs maybe once every three months.

Though I don’t use CSV exports from my banks for anything, I do like to periodically download and archive them. When I generate the exports I ask for one file per month. I refer to these as “bank dumps” and store them in directory named dump. Each file is named for the account and month it represents. For example, an account named Assets:Bank:Savings will have last month’s dump stored at dump/assets-bank-savings-202007.csv. I pretty much never open these files, but I like having them archived. They allow me to see how much money a bank thought I had at any point in time, even if the account is no longer open, and provide assurance that I can always true my records if I somehow mess them up.


  1. Ledger has the ability to record assertions. I have never used this feature, but I probably should.